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Hello friends! Welcome to a new Happy Learning video.
Today, we’re going to learn about of the first and most important of human civilisations, today, we’re going to learn about… Mesopotamia!
The word Mesopotamia means “between two rivers” in greek! So this civilisation was named because it was situated between two rivers: Tigris and Euphrates.
Within these fertile lands, the first ever city-states were born, four thousand years before Christ! The most important cities were Ur, Urk and Lagash.
These city-states were independent from each other, like small different countries.They were surrounded by a great wall to protect themselves. The Ziggurat, a temple where priests lived, was built in the center of the city. Here, they controlled the trade, agriculture and taxes. The supreme priest had the city’s political and religious power
Agricultural fields spread across these cities, which were traversed by irrigation channels that used the river’s water to water cultivations and animals would drink. Most of the city’s citizens were farmers and shepherds, but there were also artesans that sold their own products at the markets.
Because of their well-being, both cities began to grow, but so did the conflicts between them due to the control of land.
These battles arose military leaders that little by little turned into monarchs, Kings!
Between the years three thousand a one thousand B.C., Mesopotamian lands were conquered by various towns or cities. The first one was the Akkadian Empire, then the Babylonian Empire, followed by the Assyrian Empire and finally the Persian Empire.
So we’ve got to know part of Mesopotamia’s history, but do you know why it has been such an important civilisation for humanity?
Well there are many reasons! The first one is, because Mesopotamia was where, around 3500 B.C., the first written language was found. At first, it was composed by simple drawings called pictograms, look at these examples.
Over time, these drawings were simplified and started to transform into symbols, which is what we know today as cuneiform (cuniform) writing. As you can see, this writing was made with a wooden punch over clay boards.
Another great contribution mesopotamia made was its art. They created the arc and vault, that helped them construct magnificent temples and palaces. To decorate the walls and doors within these temples and palaces they used paintings like this one, where the King Ashurbanipal is hunting lions.
By the way, before we say goodbye, Do you know what country Mesopotamia is today?
Well it’s… Irak! you can see it here.
Goodbye friends! And don’t forget to subscribe to Happy Learning Tv!